Bone-inspired Steel

Load cycling of metal components leads to fatigue and ultimately failure through the propagation of cracks. Taking inspiration from bone structure, an international team of researchers led by Motomichi Koyama of Kyushu University in Fukuoka, Japan, developed steel with a laminated substructure that does not crack in spite of repeated application of pressure.The research found that steel with a hierarchical laminated nanosubstructure, like that seen in bones, is much more resistant to cracking that occurs from repeated stress. The resulting “hierarchical material” has much better fatigue resistance properties than other iron alloys. This kind of microstructural engineering is applicable to other metal alloys too, the authors said. The research was published in a recent issue of the journal Science.The research group identified two types of steel with structures comparable to that of bone: ferrite-cementite pearlitic steel and martensite-austenite transformation-induced plasticity steel. Making further enhancements to both types, the team introduced additional bone-like characteristics that resist crack propagation. In subsequent experiments, both were found to be significantly more resistant to cracking than a type of steel typically used in automotive systems.The authors subjected the laminated steel to repeated cycles of stress and found that the development of microscopic cracks was delayed until 107 cycles. They say this resistance to cracking is owing to something called roughness-induced crack termination. Development of steel and other alloys with this structure has the potential to improve the safety of buildings and components that experience cyclic, weighty loads.However, while the laminated steel was resistant to repeated stress, it still cracked under higher initial amplitudes of stress.The authors have proposed several mechanisms that could address this issue.

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How Does Traditional Market Research Integrate Blockchain
How Does Traditional Market Research Integrate Blockchain
Insights network launched the install blockchain, which is one of the most unique blockchain technology use cases seen in the world. In this article, we will discuss how our blockchain Market Research Network works from a technical perspective, and how this technology can improve data quality, reduce costs, reduce fraud, and empower data creators.Next, we will focus on some of the most common problems in the traditional market research industry. Since the birth of the Internet, there has been no innovative standard practice in the traditional market research industry.Problem: low quality users. Unconfirmed false data. The traditional panel only allows users to register and select demographic information. We call it personal data value (age, gender, income level, number of children, pet owner, etc.). IP address detection is the basis for deciding whether to allow consumers to participate in the survey. In some cases, a method called "river sampling" is used to conduct real-time surveys of respondents. In this method, anyone who visits the survey link will begin to be screened for demographic questions and enter the relevant surveys (if available). This will lead to a poor user experience, which we will discuss in another article on this blog.Solution: verify the blockchain account. The submitted value is assigned to the install blockchain account as a hash value after verification. The insights network blockchain authentication account is assigned a hash value, allowing the account to participate in the smart contract. The identity is verified by a third-party authentication partner, and the value of the profile is submitted as an unexplained hash value, so it is impossible to know what value is assigned to each user. We use our patent application zero knowledge proof authentication scheme as a filter to ensure that authentication partners cannot track the documents they are validating. The technology we are applying for patent will be published and disclosed in detail before the end of 2019. Next, you will see the account verification record that occurs in real time and recorded on the blockchain. In this example, the account "fbtiezh3sty4" has received the authentication credentials assigned to its account and submitted to the install blockchain as "commit".Install blockchain record of the validated profile value submitted to the blockchain accountProblem: poor user experience. When conducting the survey on the traditional market research platform, a method called "river sampling" is adopted to conduct real-time survey on the respondents. In this method, anyone who visits the link will begin to be screened for demographic questions and guided to the relevant survey (if any). This leads to a bad user experience, and users constantly jump out of the survey in the process of accepting the survey. This is a waste of investigators' time and creates great frustration among the team members, resulting in a low retention rate of the team. For example, a requester can set a condition that only men aged 30-40 who drive a white car, own a dog and have mortgage debt are eligible to participate in the survey. Instead of predetermining these values before service users, they ask them when investigators conduct surveys. Some surveys may take 45 minutes to complete. Imagine that you spent 25 minutes completing a survey, but when they asked you if you had a pet and you said no, you were rejected. What would you think. This happened to most respondents.Solution: determine the "match" in advance before providing users with investigation opportunities. Through the smart contract on the install blockchain, you can find the value of the blockchain account submitted to each user and the local storage of the encryption profile value on the user's device. Every time a survey opportunity is created and funded, it enters the insights network data exchange smart contract. The contract then polls each device connected to the network for a device that matches the requested survey. The same selection criteria as traditional market research products can be set by the requester, but it does not allow anyone on the local IP address to access the survey - just to pop up unqualified participants afterwards - the smart contract searches for active devices on the network and only shows the survey opportunities to providers who meet the exact criteria specified by the requester. We use the so-called disconnection circuit to calculate the encryption profile value of each user to determine the "match". During the matching process, encrypted data polled for eligible demographic data will never be decrypted - giving users complete control over the visibility of their data. Here is how to record a match on the blockchain:Complete the "matched" install blockchain recordOnce a match is determined, the provider can see an investigation opportunity. Users can view the compensation provided for completing the survey, the personal data requested and the submitted data, and agree when exchanging personal data and responding to the survey. The submitted answer cannot be represented by a hash value.Install blockchain record for data exchangeQuestion: can you really believe these data? Most panel companies that complete the brand survey sample provide data sets to brands in an opaque situation. Previously, the industry has been plagued by the sharing of personally identifiable information (also known as "PII"). However, with the introduction of the general data protection regulation (gdpr) by the European Union (EU), this system has undergone major adjustments. It is illegal to collect consumers' personal identity information and sell it to a third party without consumers' consent. If the PII of consumers cannot be shared, it is more difficult to provide accurate information about the surveyed users. Nevertheless, most online panel companies have completely unauthenticated user databases, and trust in people is the only determinant of data quality.Solution: the blockchain can verify the transaction ID. When running an example on the insights network, the blockchain transaction ID is associated with each respondent. This creates audit trails that are not available in the current market research industry. There is now a clear record of team members' submissions and the relevant summary values of each team member. In addition to transparency, these transaction IDS can also be used as your consent records, that is, the consumers you investigate and exchange data agree to the data exchange you pay for them. Some gdpr laws require applicants to keep records of subjects' consent. Using the insights network, this feature is built-in to the end-to-end experience.The following is a screenshot of the data export of a survey recently launched by insight networ. As the requester, this is the data you paid and the data you received. As an additional feature, insights network uses one-time pad encryption for all data you purchase. This means that insights network cannot pry into the data set you pay as a requester. After you export the data, this is the only time you can export the data.Results of a survey sponsored by insights network on the popular cryptocurrency chainlinkProblem: slow invoicing and long revenue turnover time. At present, the invoicing time of the market research industry needs at least 60-90 days, and a brand can pay the expenses of researchers. This means that team members also have to wait for their bonus. The core reason is the lack of high-quality data and deceptive survey responses that need to be evaluated and filtered from the final data set. This may take several weeks for the brand to comb through the data and determine which data sets are available and which are false. This is a particularly painful experience for group companies because they are waiting for feedback from the brand. Basically, the brand tells them how much they will get from the data set provided by group members.Solution: early data verification and smart contract payment data exchange. As mentioned in this article, the verification of profile values, matching on blockchain and smart contract governance create a more efficient and high-quality end-to-end experience. The last thing to record is the payment scheme. Because surveys can be provided to pre-determined, pre validated audiences, payments occur immediately and are subject to smart contracts. Install cryptocurrency provides funds for the smart contract according to the budget determined by the requester, and pays the provider with blockchain transaction immediately after the provider submits and agrees to the data exchange. The following is the transaction ID of the data exchange smart contract paid to the provider who completed and agreed to exchange in the network.Blockchain transaction ID of payment data exchangeCryptocurrency payments on the blockchain and install blockchain are borderless and can be sent to anyone around the world within 1 second. It also opens up access to emerging markets that were previously inaccessible due to the collapse of their banking systems.Development prospectAt present, we are running the survey sample on the install blockchain network as the first use case of insights network. This technology has unlimited scalability, can safely verify data, and communicate privately on the network in a transparent record, such as sending bitcoin payment to friends. Some future use cases we are dealing with include releasing previously unavailable data exchange / sharing opportunities, such as nuclear power plant data exchange, PII involving Enterprise Market Research (Q4) using secret state data prediction, and simpler use cases, such as receipt data exchange and micro customer experience survey. The most beautiful aspect of blockchain technology is the global cooperation opportunities it provides.Source: blocknet
Reasons Why We Should Impose Tariffs on Goods From China...?
Reasons Why We Should Impose Tariffs on Goods From China...?
Reasons why we should impose tariffs on goods from China...?I really see no good so I will give you things to prepare for. 1.) Trade is good for everyone 2.) This would hurt US China relations when China is a rising powerhouse 3.) Prices for consumers would rise and quantity demanded would go down as demand shifts left— — — — — —Why don't we raise taxes and tariffs on outsourcing companies?Tariffs and quotas create something that is called deadweight loss. It is a result of a misallocation of resources. In other words they create massive inefficiencies within the international trade system. Believe it or not, we are better off as a society to allow trade to flow freely between all countries we do business with. Outsourcing then becomes a situation of right vs right. For example, it pits doing what is right for the company against doing what is right for the individual. It's a hard pill to swallow, but those who have been replaced by overseas employees must retrain themselves into an industry that we are efficient in— — — — — —Since China is not paying the tariffs levied on its exports to the US, why is the tariffs affecting Chinau2019s economy?Because the premise of the question is not true. Chinese exporters are paying the lionu2019s share of the cost of the tariffs, and that is pretty much undeniable at this point.Many media outlets and personalities have an axe to grind with Trump, and are perpetuating a lie that the tariffs arenu2019t affecting China, in order to make Trump look bad. Itu2019s all theater. However, like most good lies, thereu2019s a small kernel of truth to it in there somewhere.The importer (America) pays the tariff in full when the product arrives in the U.S., and that seems to be the kernel of truth that talking heads are latching on to. Unfortunately for the anti-Trump crowd, that is only part of the story. In order to keep the retail price down, the exporter (China) must lower itu2019s wholesale price, and thus itu2019s profit margin in order to remain competitive. In the end, the wholesale price, plus the importeru2019s mark up, plus the tariff, still has to be at an attractive price point for customers. The tariff cannot be budged. That means some combination of wholesale discounts (Chinese exporter), retail discounts (American importer), or higher prices (American consumer) must be sought.For example, say youu2019ve been buying Chinese bubble gum for 10 cents each, and re-selling them for 15 cents in American stores, netting you 5 cents in profit. Now a 5 cent tariff is applied. You know you canu2019t sell very much bubble gum at 20 cents when they are worth only 15. You talk to the Chinese supplier, and they can cut your price from 10 cents to 7 cents. Meanwhile, you, the middle-man, can cut your profit from 5 cents to 4 cents. So you receive gum from China at 7 cents a pop, apply your 4 cent mark-up, then pay the 5 cent tariff, and put the gum on the store shelf at 16 cents each. You think you can still sell a large enough quantity of gum at 16 cents versus 15 cents.The price for the consumer (American) went up only 1 penny, but the tariff is 5 pennies. The importeru2019s profit dropped by 1 penny. The manufactureru2019s profit dropped by 3 pennies. The consumer (American) is eating 20% of the tariff, the importer (American) is eating 20% of the tariff. The Chinese manufacturer is eating 60%, 3 pennies, of the tariff. The proof is in the pudding. American consumers and importers are eating about 25% of the cost of the tariffs, while Chinese exporters are eating about 75%. However, that is small potatoes compared to the amount of manufacturing that is fleeing China for a better environment. The migration of manufacturing out of China has been happening for a while now, but the imposition of tariffs accelerated the process greatly. Fortunately, Iu2019ve written about this topic several times, and references to the evidence supporting this 25/75 claim reside in the following posts.John Anderson's answer to How much have tariffs already cost Americans in higher prices and farm subsidies? Has there been any increase in sales of goods made in the U.S.? Why does Trump continue to insist that China, not American consumers, pays the tariffs?John Anderson's answer to A recent survey quoted an average income family are paying an extra $800 a year on Trumpu2019s tariffs. Do you think itu2019s a price worth paying?John Anderson's answer to Is the Trump administrations use of tariffs just a clever way to tax the middle class and poor because they basically pay for the tariffs in higher prices?Since China is not paying the tariffs levied on its exports to the US, why is the tariffs affecting Chinau2019s economy?
Microsoft Officially Launched a New Surface Pro X Product in China
Microsoft Officially Launched a New Surface Pro X Product in China
On March 8, the new surface Pro X was officially launched in China. As Microsoft's lightest, strongest and most connected surface product so far, surface Pro x adopts Microsoft SQ1 processor jointly customized by Microsoft and Qualcomm. Microsoft SQ1 processor can achieve the balance between excellent performance and long endurance, help create a lightweight, fan free modern design, and bring consumers with "always on, always connected" mobile office PC products.Qualcomm has been committed to driving industry change through innovation, while working with ecosystem partners to enable a new user experience. In the field of mobile computing, Qualcomm has created a PC category of "always online and always connected", and continuously enriched PC functions to enable consumers to obtain an ideal and high-quality mobile experience. In 2016, Qualcomm announced its cooperation with Microsoft to enable Xiaolong computing platform to support Windows 10 PC. This time, through the Microsoft SQ1 processor jointly developed by Qualcomm and Microsoft based on Xiaolong computing platform, surface Pro x further brings the top features of smartphones to the PC category. Enable consumers to fully experience the top PC energy efficiency and performance, long-lasting battery life, smart phone like instant on, continuous connection and Gigabit 4G LTE speed in thin, fanless PC products.For PC users who need to work anytime, anywhere and capture inspiration, poor endurance, slow startup speed and lack of safe and stable network are the pain points that have plagued them for a long time. PC products that can be thin, portable and connected freely are an important guarantee for their productivity and creativity. The body thickness of surface Pro x is only 5.33mm and the bare metal weight is only 774g. It is the lightest surface product in Microsoft's history. The product not only has a slim and fashionable appearance design, but also brings the industry's best CPU, GPU and AI performance through Microsoft SQ1 processor. In terms of connection, Microsoft SQ1 processor adopts Xiaolong x24 modem, which is the world's first modem supporting cat.20 LTE, with a speed of up to 2.0 Gbps, and can provide a stable, high-speed and safe 4G LTE connection. In addition, surface Pro x supports ultra long battery life of up to 13 hours, which can effectively alleviate the anxiety of battery and network connection when consumers are in mobile office environments such as airports or cafes. The support of Microsoft SQ1 processor for battery life, 4G LTE and Wi Fi connection, as well as excellent multitasking capability, high-quality dual 4K video output and other excellent functions make the work easier and more efficient. Make surface Pro x a great device for consumers to capture inspiration and create at any time.
What Does Empty Space in an Atom Consist Of?
What Does Empty Space in an Atom Consist Of?
Well there is a lot of empty space in an atom.They actually say that if you take all the space out of atoms then the Empire State building would shrink to the size of a grain of sand.The Space in an atom has some very important properties.MassEnergy storageRoom to moveFirst of all lets look at mass. Einstein once too a block of iron and heated it up. What he found was interesting. The block of hot iron weighed more, and took up more space. It had gained mass.The iron atoms had gained mass in the form of heat energy. But where is this energy stored, the electrons have the same charge, and the nucleus had the same charge. But the electrons had moved to a higher level and the spaces inside the atom had expanded.So this is where the energy goes, into the void or empty space of an atom.If this space was nothing, then it could be filled with stuff. But atoms hold their ground they hold their form and you have special bonds happen between atoms. Electrons can move from one level to the next, and spin. Without this space atoms could not function.So this space in an atom is fundamental to the atoms abilities to behave like an atom.• Other QuestionsHow do hydrogen, deuterium and tritium differ?Deuterium and tritium are isotopes of hydrogen. Atomic isotopes have the same number of protons, but differ in the number of neutrons. All isotopes of hydrogen have a single proton. There are seven known hydrogen isotopes.Hydrogen is the only element whose common isotopes have different names in use today: protium (no neutrons, what you would call normal hydrogen), deuterium (one neutron), and tritium (two neutrons). The other four hydrogen isotopes are extremely short-lived and do not have special names.Deuterium is about twice as heavy as protium, and tritium about three times as heavy.Protium and deuterium can be used in discharge lamps and other gas-filled tubes. The colors produced by discharge lamps are close, but different.H2O is fairly common on the planet. However, about 1 in 7,000 of these molecules is actually DOH (or D2O). You can drink D2O in moderation without any harm. Tritium is mildly radioactive, with a 12 year half-life. There are minute quantities naturally. Drinking a glasss of T2O is ill-advised, but everyone ingests extremely minute quantities regularly, without harm.Deuterium and tritium are used in fusion research (turning D and T into heavier atoms, such as helium). The energy required to get them to fuse is amongst the lowest. Although fusion in the sun starts with protium, it is not used in earth-based fusion because the energy requirements are much, much higher.------Is electron a "point particle" as assumed in Quantum Mechanics?Nowhere it is formally claimed that an electron (or any other fundamental particle) is a point--that is, that a fundamental particle has 0 size. What is known is that a description of a fundamental particle can ignore its size (and thus regard it as 0) without measurable effects on the computations deriving from its other, measurable, properties and interactions.That's really all there is to it. We have no idea as to whether a fundamental particle has a size, or whether talking about its size has any meaning at all. What we know is that fundamental particles, like the electron, have no measurable size; and that's because we've been trying hard for decades to measure their size, and no matter how carefully we try and what methods we use, we get a size that's smaller than the error inherent in the measurements. And that error is way smaller than the size of a nucleus, or even a single proton. Which we can measure, using variants of the same methods we employ with electrons, and obtain results significantly above the inherent errors.The bottom, practical line boils down to:nwe don't know;we mostly don't care;in the case of fundamental particles, having a size (in so far as it is smaller than our error limits) doesn't change the results.Make of this what you want.This answer cannot substitute a proper professional evaluation.Is electron a "point particle" as assumed in Quantum Mechanics?.------What will happen to our sun after it burns all of its hydrogen?The sun will not burn all of its hydrogen, or even close to it.Think of fusion as a push and pull against gravity. Gravity wants to crush all mass into a single point. Fusion wants to blow everything off into a giant cloud.So when you have a lot of mass, (like the sun) gravity pushes hard enough on the atoms to force them to fuse, which releases an awful lot of energy pushing back against gravity. Eventually all the inner pieces become incredibly hard to fuse (even though there is still an awful lot of hydrogen in the upper layers, it isnt close enough to the core to fuse). So gravity crushes it down, and down, until finally even those inner layers are forced to fuse. Since these atoms are so massive they release a lot more energy, so much so that the gravity crushing down on the outer layers (where all the hydrogen is) is overcome by the energy of the fusion and the outer layer containing the vast majority of hydrogen is blown away. At this point the sun will be a white dwarf with little to no hydrogen in it.This is common for all stars, the vast (vast) majority of hydrogen is never fused. Its blown around in supernovas and nebulas and red giants but not fused------How does the same process that makes planets also make stars?It is amazing how the process unfolds - to form a star, you start with a large cloud of gas and dust, and once it starts to coalesce, it grows a central mass that keeps accumulating more gas, and more gas, then gets to the threshold of a minimal 0.08% of the Suns mass to begin the gravitational collapse and the ignition of fusion. Where the cloud is much larger than minimal more and more gas accumulates to make a more massive star, perhaps like the Sun, or, for example, two Solar masses to make a star like Sirius.The onset of fusion begins the down clock on the remaining gas and dust in the proto planetary disk. All while the star was forming, lesser objects were also forming in the disk itself, and the more and more they grew they became more massive. Once the star ignites, though, the new stellar wind starts to drive the extra gas / dust away, so that the planets will never accumulate as much gas and dust to become even marginal stars, but will remain planets (big and small). The biggest planets (since they were in the process of gaining more gas before they were shut down) are gas giants (our Jupiter and Saturn); the smaller planets stopped growing at the rocky planet stage (Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars)------Itu2019s accepted that the universe will exist forever. But wonu2019t we run out of hydrogen at some point in the future so there will be no stars? Or is there a natural process of fission that Iu2019m not aware of?Its not accepted that the universe will exist forever, at least by physicists and cosmologists. There are various theories for how it will end, but most experts agree that it will end.The most popular theories are (least popular first):The Big Crunch - gravity wins, and the universes expansion is reversed, and it all falls in towards each other, getting very hot as it does so, towards the end.The Big Freeze - closest to what you were saying: all stars use up their fuel, and turn into white dwarfs, then eventually (after an incredibly long time - hundreds of billions of years) cool down and turn into black dwarfs - basically cold lumps of matter. At this point the whole universe is in a state of maximum entropy, ie everywhere is at the same temperature (very cold).The Big Rip - the expansion of space keeps accelerating until the lambda-force (the theorised dark energy that is causing the expansion to accelerate) is so strong that it pulls apart all matter, down to the fundamental particle level.The Big Rip is (I think) the current favourite theory, and also (I think) the one that would happen soonest out of the three. Theyre all tied into the expansion rate of the universe, and so can be neatly summarised in this spacetime diagram:------Why do people say nuclear bombs are fake?Re. radioactive fallout: the strongest isotopes decay the fastest, giving the 710 rule- after seven times the amount of time has passed, the remaining radioactivity will be 1/10 as strong. So even after a large release of radioactive material such as a nuclear explosion or a reactor accident, the level of radioactivity will after weeks or months be too low to produce acute symptoms of radiation exposure.The problem after that is long-term chronic exposure. Two radioactive isotopes typically released from nuclear fission are Strontium-90 and Cesium-137. These have half-lives (how long it takes for half to decay away) of about 29-30 years. Because of the chemistry of strontium and cesium, any taken into the body will tend to remain there, and radioactive material taken into the body is far more harmful than material outside. If an area is contaminated with fallout, eating any plants or animals that grow there could lead to unhealthy levels of radioactive material within the body, potentially causing cancer, suppressed immune systems or birth defects. Unborn and young children are especially vulnerable, worsened by the fact that strontium and cesium become concentrated in milk.For example, the areas around Chernobyl and Fukushima actually support much wildlife now that humans have been evacuated; but in both locations wild boars were found to have levels of cesium too high for them to be safe to eat.------Is there any possibility that after billions or trillions of years, the Sun will lose its heat energy and disappear from the universe?The Sun is a star, and like all stars, it converts hydrogen, the most common element in the universe (by far), into helium, a process called fusion, which releases enormous quantities of gamma rays. By the time it takes for those gamma rays to reach the surface from the core where they are produced, it takes about 100,000 years in the case of our Sun, they will have degraded from high energy gamma to relatively low energy x-rays, UV rays, visible light, IR rays (heat) and microwaves.As a star consumes its hydrogen it gets hotter and hotter which accelerates the fusion process and at a certain point, the hydrogen is used up and the star collapses in the core and expands at the surface. It wonu2019t disappear (eventually it does) right away, but after a few billion years it will no longer be able to provide enough light and heat to sustain life on Earth. However, long before then, the increased heat of the Sun will have evaporated and blown away all the air and water, sterilizing the planet, mountains will melt into valleys and the surface of the Earth will resemble a glass ball with pock marks from space rocks which will reach the surface as there will be no air to stop them.Is there any possibility that after billions or trillions of years, the Sun will lose its heat energy and disappear from the universe?.
Ti Introduced Tps54062's Latest 50mA, 60V Synchronous Step-down Converter, Which Can Simplify the De
Ti Introduced Tps54062's Latest 50mA, 60V Synchronous Step-down Converter, Which Can Simplify the De
Beijing, August 4, 2011 - Texas Instruments (TI) recently announced the launch of a 50 Ma, 60 V synchronous swift ™ The step-down regulator can provide high efficiency and low noise performance in a solution with a size of only 125 mm2. The tps54062 integrates high side and low side power MOSFETs to provide high-efficiency power conversion and transient protection for noise sensitive industrial automation and sensor control, intelligent instruments, telecommunications, computing and consumer design.The latest 50 Ma, 60 V swift converters not only cope with high voltage transient protection up to 65 V, but also maintain high efficiency throughout the load. For more high-voltage transient protection at 50 Ma, Ti has also recently launched a new 50 Ma, 100 V LDO tps7a4001, which can achieve an extremely fast establishment time of less than 500 nanoseconds for 50 V transient events.In addition, tps54062 also supports ti's various embedded processor applications, including stellaris based applications ® ARM ® Cortex ™- M MCU、C5000 ™ Ultra low power DSP and ultra low power MSP430 based on 16 bit MCU ™ Applications, such as intelligent instruments, building automation and safety systems.Main features and advantages of tps54062:High efficiency and high performance: 65 V transient protection meets the specification requirements; Wide operating temperature (- 40 ° to 150 ° C); 90% efficiency at 150 kHz, 24 VIN and 5 Vout;Excellent noise performance: tps54062 can be synchronized with the clock through fixed frequency;Low power operation: 89 UA working current and only 1.7 UA off current;The smallest solution size in the industry: 100 to 400 kHz switching frequency range, small MSOP package, integrated high and low side FET, which can save 20 mm2 board space compared with similar competitive solutions.Supply8-pin, 3mm x 5mm MSOP powerpad ™ The encapsulated tps54062 is now available in bulk and can be ordered through Ti and its authorized distributors.
MCU Knowledge Is One of the Foundations of Linux Driver Development
MCU Knowledge Is One of the Foundations of Linux Driver Development
This is the wiki text version of lesson 1 and lesson 2 of arm bare metal phase 1 enhanced version.Why do you want to learn SCM without a future?Because it's a good entrance.Learning MCU can let us put aside the complex software structure and master the hardware operation first, such as looking at the schematic diagram, chip manual, writing program operation register, etc. In the last video, I just belittled the single chip microcomputer to nothing, saying that the single chip microcomputer has no future. In this video, I want to tell you that if there is no future, you should also learn the single chip microcomputer. Why?First of all, I don't need to learn MCU, which means don't use the old learning methods to learn MCU. What is the old way?·Hardware: do not use C51, STM32 these special MCU development boards. If you don't plan to engage in MCU development in the future, why do you use these chips? After studying for two or three months, you can use these registers clearly, and you can't use them. It's unnecessary.·Software: do not use KEIL, MDK and other highly integrated software. If you use these software, you can write main (), and then call various libraries for fool operation. These easy-to-use tools encapsulate many technical details, making it impossible for us to understand the essence of bare metal and single chip microcomputer.In the future, we will use a new set of methods to develop MCU. A new set of methods will be introduced later.The reason why we have to learn MCU is that its knowledge is still useful for us to learn Linux. Let's first look at what a Linux system is all about. Software composition of an embedded Linux system: MCU bootloader – > linux driver – > linux app – > linux GUI (Android / Qt). When our PC is powered on, the BIOS will be displayed on the black screen. The purpose of this BIOS is to start the windows kernel. The windows kernel then mounts Disk C (system disk) and disk D (application disk), and finally starts applications, such as QQ and online games. Similarly, our Android phones or industrial control devices also have BIOS, but the embedded Linux system is not called BIOS, but bootloader. Its purpose is to start the Linux kernel. It first identifies the storage device where the application is located, mounts the root file system (Disk C and disk D in Windows system, called root file system in Linux), and finally starts the application.Carefully analyze the bootloader. It starts the kernel. Where does it start the kernel? Obviously, it reads the kernel somewhere. For example, BIOS reads the windows kernel from disk C, and our bootloader reads the kernel from flash or SD card. Therefore, bootloader should have the ability to read flash or SD card. Some bootloaders also display logo, so it also has the ability to operate LC D. bootloader also needs to set the environment of the development board, such as initializing the clock, initializing the memory, and setting the network card. So many things are implemented in bootloader, which is too complex. It is very difficult to analyze the whole bootloader when you come.So how do we learn? Take it apart and write a separate program, such as LED lighting, clock, network card and flash. These are single-chip microcomputer programs. Therefore, bootloader is a complete collection of single-chip microcomputer programs. In order to better learn bootloader, we should practice the hardware one by one in advance. When we are familiar with each hardware , and then combined, it's a bootloader.Let's take another look at bootloader. After bootloader starts the kernel, the kernel mounts the root file system, which means that the kernel also has the ability to operate the hardware, which is the driver. First, let's take a look at a simple driver. First, our application calls open(), read(), write() These standard interfaces are used to access the hardware. Then enter the driver, which has the corresponding drive_open(), drive_read(), drive_write(). Finally, configure the hardware in the driver. For example, for an LED lighting driver, drive_open() should set the GPIO as the output pin, drive_read(), return the GPIO status, and driver_write() Write GPIO and let the pin output high level or low level.For our LED driver, you need to provide drive_open(), drive_read(), drive_write(). This is its framework. The specific operation of hardware is hardware operation. Therefore, we are familiar with and master the hardware operation in the single chip microcomputer in advance. That is, the composition of the driver:Driver = software framework hardware operationYou need to learn to see the schematic diagram, how to connect the hardware, read the chip manual, and know how to read and write registers. All these can be learned and mastered in the single chip microcomputer. When learning linux driver in the future, focus on the software framework.We can learn single chip microcomputer in advance. The learning of single chip microcomputer allows us to put aside the complex software structure and master the hardware operation first, such as looking at the schematic diagram, chip manual, writing program operation register, etc. This is why single chip microcomputer has no future, and we also need to learn. It is because the hardware operation involved in it is very useful for our subsequent learning.Now we know that we learn MCU not to master the development skills of MCU, but to master bootloader and hardware operation.Original post transferred from: http://bbs.elecfans.com/jishu_1544437_1_1.html
"Internet Plus Medical" Has Been Arranged by Internet Giants, Which Promotes the Development of the
"Internet Plus Medical" Has Been Arranged by Internet Giants, Which Promotes the Development of the
Since the outbreak of the epidemic, health codes, online diagnosis and treatment, infrared thermometers, etc. have been gradually known by the public. They share a "tall" name - "smart medical". In addition, in recent years, the rise of online registration, APP end test sheet, electronic medical record, guidance robot and so on are all intelligent medical treatment.However, these new technologies are not as popular as expected. Many grass-roots medical institutions, physical examination centers and elderly care institutions still adopt traditional service modes such as queuing for numbers, handwritten prescriptions and paper medical records; Even hospitals that have established an electronic patient record database do not exchange data with each other, becoming "information islands". Therefore, in the eyes of most patients, "intelligent medical treatment" is just an ungrounded abstract thing.Kangtai medicine (300869) has been established for more than 20 years. It has been mainly engaged in the production and sales of medical devices. Its products cover many categories such as blood oxygen, ECG, ultrasound, monitoring and blood pressure. Its 160 patents are also developed around medical devices. As early as 2010, such a "traditional" medical equipment production and marketing enterprise began to explore the integration of traditional medical equipment, telemedicine and Internet technology, that is, the initial form of smart medicine.What achievements have Kangtai medicine made in years of exploration? For the current situation of "ungrounded" intelligent medical treatment, can it be changed?Medical "Internet access to the cloud" is difficult to sinkAfter the establishment of Ali in 2014, Tencent, Baidu, Jingdong and the US group have been laying Internet plus medical services, thus promoting the first stage of intelligent medical treatment. The second stage is "Ai medical".The problem is that the Internet Medical layout of giants is concentrated in the hospital system, and the coverage of regional health system and family health system is obviously insufficient.Take Alibaba, which has the most comprehensive layout, as an example. In its internet medical product matrix, only pre diagnosis services or auxiliary diagnosis and treatment services such as health science popularization, consultation registration and medicine B2C can touch the regional health system and family health system. In terms of hospital system, Ali has arranged many products and services such as Internet hospital, smart hospital, provincial and municipal Internet hospital platform, doctor training and e-prescription circulation platform.It is worth noting that the layout of "focusing on hospital system" is actually leveraging doctor resources to obtain users in the traditional "doctor led patient" mode, so as to enter the field of medical circulation and out of hospital services. This layout has limited power for hospitals and even the government. Therefore, the high-quality medical resources provided by internet giants are concentrated in the pre diagnosis and auxiliary diagnosis and treatment links, and a large number of patient resources are closed in the traditional medical system and difficult to be touched.In addition, a large number of patients with "minor diseases and disasters" choose to "see a doctor nearby" and enter the regional health system and family health system. Patients in the "three systems" of hospitals, regions and families are difficult to reach, which leads to the low penetration rate of internet medical users: in May 2020, there were 41.35 million active internet medical users, a year-on-year increase of 38%, but the penetration rate of the whole network was only 4%. It is not difficult to understand why the majority of patients believe that smart medicine is "ungrounded".Not only the Internet giant, but also the whole medical service supply is basically concentrated in general hospitals, which seriously deviates from the reform orientation of "graded diagnosis and treatment".Graded diagnosis and treatment emphasizes that it is graded according to the priority of diseases and the difficulty of treatment. Medical institutions at different levels undertake the treatment of different diseases, and gradually realize the medical process from general practice to specialization.In 2015, the total number of diagnosis and treatment in China's medical and health institutions reached 7.7 billion, of which the proportion of diagnosis and treatment in tertiary hospitals, secondary hospitals, primary hospitals and grass-roots medical institutions was 19%, 15%, 3% and 56% respectively; By 2018, the total number of people diagnosed and treated had increased to 8.31 billion, and the above proportions had changed to 21%, 15%, 3% and 53% respectively.Graded diagnosis and treatment "has its form but not its reality". Tertiary hospitals are still overcrowded, and grass-roots hospitals are few. To promote the sinking of patient flow, we must improve the service capacity of grass-roots medical institutions.It can be seen that whether it is the internal demand to improve the penetration of internet medical services, or the external call of "graded diagnosis and treatment" reform. Smart medicine must strengthen the ability to serve grass-roots medical institutions.Kangtai medicine is a domestic enterprise that consciously laid out smart medicine earlier. It has not only laid out telemedicine for a long time, but also a variety of medical instruments have been "online into the cloud". Can it solve the chronic disease of the industry?Go to the masses and expand production and R & DKangtai medicine's layout of telemedicine is reflected in: it has built a SaaS telemedicine platform, which integrates multiple resources such as medical devices, users, doctors, experts and health managers, and monitors individual health in the whole process through software technology, so as to cover high-quality medical resources to families and communities. Its telemedicine software is mainly PHMS telemedicine system Android version and babytalk baby heart language Android version.The "Internet access to the cloud" of Kangtai medical equipment is mainly reflected in that its wrist / desktop / handheld / wearable oximeter supports data storage and upload, and all the physical examination data of the health all-in-one machine can be connected to the cloud platform.Among them, the inspection box, as the standard configuration of grass-roots physical examination, is composed of tablet computer, Bluetooth second-generation ID card reader and Bluetooth data acquisition terminal. The physical examination parameters include almost all conventional physical examination items. Users can quickly establish residents' health files through ID card swiping. The physical examination data can be automatically uploaded to the cloud platform and support seamless connection with third-party platforms.In solving the "sinking" problem, Kangtai medicine and the Internet giant have different choices:Unlike "focusing on the hospital system", Kangtai medical products went deep into the "masses" from the beginning by relying on "Grass-roots" channels such as local clinics, elderly care institutions and families.From OEM medical equipment for foreign manufacturers in the 1990s, to opening the foreign market with independent brands at the beginning of this century, and then to the grass-roots level in China in the last 10 years. Behind the transformation battlefield of Kangtai medicine, there is technical strength support, but there is also "helplessness" from reality.For example, when it turned to the domestic market, it failed to capture general hospital customers with large orders and sufficient financial resources, and had to reach grass-roots medical institutions and family users through the e-commerce platform. The reason is that the former market has been divided up by multinational enterprises and domestic enterprises involved in the earlier stage. Mixing the medical equipment industry, relying on technology and channels, Kangtai medicine had to find another way.Fortunately, most of the medical instruments produced by Kangtai medicine are simple to operate, easy to carry and highly versatile. Even through online sales, they can reach users, and are particularly popular in grass-roots medical institutions, especially families.In particular, the "health all-in-one machine" produced by Kangtai medicine integrates a variety of functions such as detecting ECG, blood oxygen, blood pressure, body temperature and blood glucose. It can be regarded as a master of its core technology and has won the procurement projects of health departments in many provinces and cities. In 2019, the revenue of its all-in-one health machine reached 50.61 million yuan, accounting for more than 13% of the revenue of many sub classified products of Kangtai medicine, becoming a "star single product".In 2014, the measures for the management of village clinics (Trial) was issued. The "health all-in-one machine" is exactly an important medical equipment that must be equipped in the village clinics. This "single product" has contributed to the reputation of Kangtai medicine at the grass-roots level.Smart medicine needs to sink. Kangtai medical products have long been distributed in village clinics, elderly care institutions, families and other grass-roots occasions. It plans to integrate the medical data of grass-roots medical institutions in the cloud through mobile app, which can make up for its current lack of only integrating physical examination data, and is more hopeful to realize interactive consultation among multi-level medical institutions, Help with graded diagnosis and treatment.It has to be said that the former "helplessness" has become the competitive advantage of Kangtai medicine.However, its production capacity and technology have sounded a red light: first, the production capacity of medical equipment has been seriously saturated and needs to be supplemented urgently; Second, intelligent medical equipment has increasingly strict requirements on the intelligent degree of medical equipment. Kangtai medical equipment's "Internet access to the cloud" performance is far from enough, and the intelligent level needs to be strengthened.Suit the remedy to the case, Kangtai medical preparation, and expand production and R & D.The current capacity of Kangtai medicine is about 1.42 million units / year, but the capacity utilization rate has always been higher than 150% in recent three years. Therefore, it raised nearly 220 million yuan to build a new "medical equipment production reconstruction and expansion project", which will double the production capacity and help Kangtai medicine occupy more market share in the grass-roots level.In addition, the homogenization of medical device products is becoming more and more serious. Big data, artificial intelligence and virtual reality technology are changing the medical device industry and becoming an important chip for players in the industry to surpass competition and win market competition. Therefore, forward-looking enterprises are stepping up the layout of intelligent medical equipment, and Kangtai medicine, which pursues intelligent medicine, is no exception.In its prospectus, it disclosed a number of research projects of cutting-edge technologies, including EEG electrode wearing state detection technology and automatic inspection technology of production line, which will produce more "intelligent" medical equipment hardware, not just products that "surf the Internet into the cloud" at the software level. Kangtai medicine also raised 70 million yuan to build the "intelligent medical equipment industry research institute" project, and subdivided the combination of traditional medical equipment and intelligent technology into five research directions to comprehensively sprint intelligent medical equipment.
Stories and Songs
Stories and Songs
Both begin with S.And the word Soul also begins with the letter S as well.Songs have hooks, bass lines, riddim, lyrics, chord progression, solos and song structure.Songs are known for repeatable cycles, chorus and verses.Songs make up the basis of the music industry and popular song has been a cornerstone of popular cutlure for over 500 years. The people of Elizabethean England sang popular songs.Stories have arcs, themes, characters, endings, conflict and resolve.Stories are known for iconic roles, characteristic conflict and resolve and well-recognized plot lines endings.Stories have been around since the dawn of time and weve studied stories as well as turns stories into money for just about as long a time.The term Stories has been turned into a particular kind of media slideshow format and there are over 1B stories being posted everyday, if you count Snap, Instagram, WhatsApp, Facebook and Facebook Messenger.Stories is a term which has been kidnapped, just like tags got turned into a way to say who is in a photo. Thats not really what a Tag is, but we forgive Facebook for stealing the phrase.So are both HUGE cultural vehicles in which we express ourselves. There are professional story tellers and song writers and there are lots and lots of amateurs as well.Interactive Narrative puts the viewer into the structure; allowing for choices, branches and different POVs to be explored.Interactive Narrative includes asking users a question, offering users polls and surveys and in general bringing the end-user into the equation as opposed to just asking them to sit there and watch.What do have in common?There fundamental ways that people express themselves. This is not about making money, but about emotional manipulation, baseline communication and emotive expression.Songs tell the story of our lives in musical fashion. Storytelling adopts to whatever medium or technology available at the time and so today we find ourselves telling stories as advertising, training and machine learning.Message Boards have always been a happy medium for interacive communication a halfway point since before the Internet.Message Boards allow humans to post a message and get a reply from another human. This form of asynchronous interaction expanded with the Internet and the WWW when people figured out that a viewer of art or video, or the reader of words could leave these things called comments attached to the original form of expression.Over the past 25 years comments have been the fundamental way that a viewer, listener or reader can express themselves BACK to the author. This form of interaction is a foundational principle of web and mobile interaction.What were trying to do is go beyond commenting.Were working on a way for the other person to interact and become part of the original creative expression. Were figuring out ways that an author can decide to what extent do I wish to let my reader interact with my art?If you ask any YouTube influencer, social media marketing maven or blogger how much interactin is enough? How many people do you want liking and leaving comments on your post(s)? they will answer AMAP (as much as possible.)To todays creative expressors there is no such thing as too much interaction. The Internet and mobile web LOVE it when users interact together. This is the friction that causes commerce.Storytelling has been kidnapped and usurped by marketeers and our children yearn to become Internet famous without having to do anything else than be obnoxious, rude and cultural inappropriate.When little white grrrls growl in ebonics and claim they is black then you know were in trouble.Theres GOT to be a way to move beyond commetning, if for no other reason that JUST being Kim Khardasian just isnt enough.Its time to go beyond just commenting and provide new ways for users to interact with creative expression.We call it Storytelling Beings (cause we sure as hell aint creating Bots!)Imagine if your Instagram story was the beginning of an Interactive Story?Imagine if you could author AI so that your Instagram story became sentient and could interact with your friends, collegues or future customers?Imagine if AI Authoring was as easy as recording a video selfie?Thats what my startup Instigate is working on.Interactive driven by AI that anyone can author. The Director of AI.First appearance for you all to try this out is Aug. 2018.Fingers crossed and the blessings of Jah supporting us·RELATED QUESTIONthumbs down or up on this song?even though its not really my style of music i still like it
Forecast of Artificial Intelligence Development in 2020
Forecast of Artificial Intelligence Development in 2020
Recently, the Ministry of education, the national development and Reform Commission and the Ministry of Finance jointly issued several opinions on building "double first-class" universities, promoting discipline integration and accelerating the cultivation of Postgraduates in the field of artificial intelligence (hereinafter referred to as the opinions), accelerating the cultivation of Postgraduates in the field of artificial intelligence and clearly proposing to expand the scale of postgraduate cultivation.According to the head of the Department of degree management and graduate education of the Ministry of education, the opinions pay special attention to the promotion strategy of multi-dimensional integration. First, the discipline construction emphasizes "integrated development", improves the discipline setting mechanism, and takes the major theoretical and practical application problems of the discipline as the traction to promote the infiltration and integration of artificial intelligence methods and technologies into more disciplines; Second, the talent training mode emphasizes "compound training", explores the problem-oriented interdisciplinary talent training mode, deepens the integration of industry and education, formulates personalized training plans, and vigorously improves the innovation and practical ability of postgraduates; Third, the construction of curriculum system emphasizes "precise coupling" and aims at "whole chain", "open" and "personalization", so as to create artificial intelligence core knowledge curriculum system and Application module curriculum; Fourth, the evaluation mechanism emphasizes "Combinatorial Innovation", takes achievement evaluation as a breakthrough, scientifically evaluates various achievement forms such as papers, patents and software copyrights, promotes the classified evaluation mechanism of different types of graduate students, and constructs a talent evaluation mechanism conducive to teachers' interdisciplinary research.It can be seen that artificial intelligence talents will become "sweet pastry" in the future. So what is the prospect of China's artificial intelligence market?Artificial intelligence is the core driving force of a new round of industrial reform. It will further release the huge energy accumulated in previous scientific and technological revolutions and industrial reforms, create a new powerful engine, reconstruct all links of economic activities such as production, distribution, exchange and consumption, form new intelligent demand in all fields from macro to micro, and give birth to new technologies, new products, new industries, new formats New mode. Artificial intelligence is rapidly integrating with all walks of life, helping traditional industries to transform and upgrade, improve quality and efficiency, and trigger a new industrial wave all over the world. So, what is the current situation of China's artificial intelligence industry?The scale of artificial intelligence market continues to expandSince 2015, the scale of China's artificial intelligence market has increased year by year. With the gradual maturity of artificial intelligence technology, industry giants such as science and technology and manufacturing continue to make in-depth layout. According to the data, in 2018, the scale of China's artificial intelligence market was about 33.9 billion yuan, with a growth rate of 56.2%. It is predicted that China's market scale in artificial intelligence will exceed 70 billion yuan in 2020.Layout of artificial intelligence industryWith the rapid development of China's artificial intelligence market, all localities actively carry out industrial layout. On the whole, China's artificial intelligence industry has formed a pattern of coordinated development in Beijing Tianjin Hebei region, the Yangtze River Delta and the Pearl River Delta, especially in the eastern coastal areas.Among them, Beijing's layout is relatively mature and has a relatively perfect industrial chain. In particular, institutions such as ZhongGuanCun science city provide favorable policy, technology and talent support for the development of Beijing's artificial intelligence industry. At present, the number of artificial intelligence enterprises in Beijing is at the forefront of the country, about 400.Compared with Beijing, Shanghai has fewer AI enterprises, but it is also ahead of other provinces and cities. Shanghai plans to build an artificial intelligence highland and create a first-class artificial intelligence innovation ecology. At present, it has arranged a "human" spatial structure, distributed in 8 regions and 11 industries. In addition to Shanghai, Jiangsu, Zhejiang and other places also actively layout, and artificial intelligence enterprises are relatively concentrated.Guangdong's scientific and technological innovation ability is also in a leading position. In particular, the planning and development of Guangdong Hong Kong Macao Bay Area attaches importance to the layout of artificial intelligence. Up to now, Guangdong Province has successfully identified two batches of 8 parks as "Guangdong artificial intelligence Industrial Park". In addition, relying on the important opportunities of national characteristic towns, thousands of enterprises and thousands of towns project, National Independent Innovation Demonstration Zone in the Pearl River Delta and the construction of Guangzhou Shenzhen Science and technology innovation corridor, Guangdong encourages local cities to speed up the application layout of artificial intelligence industry and build a number of artificial intelligence towns in combination with local foundation and advantages.Forecast of development trend of artificial intelligence industry in 2020At present, the basic conditions for the development of China's artificial intelligence industry have been met. The next decade will be the outbreak period of accelerating the popularization of artificial intelligence technology, and the special chip for artificial intelligence is expected to become the next outbreak point. With the commercial implementation of 5g, the development of artificial intelligence industry will be accelerated. At the same time, artificial intelligence has a significant spillover effect, which will drive the continuous progress of other related technologies and boost the transformation and upgrading of traditional industries and the overall breakthrough of strategic emerging industries. In 2020, AI will have the following development trends:1. Policies continue to optimize industry developmentSince 2017, artificial intelligence has been mentioned in the government work report for three consecutive years, indicating the importance of the artificial intelligence industry. In 2019, in the government work report, artificial intelligence has gone through the embryonic stage and preliminary development stage from "accelerating", "strengthening" to "deepening", indicating that it will enter a period of rapid development in the next stage, and pay more attention to the application. In 2020, the government will continue to support accelerating the development of artificial intelligence industry. The "policy continuous catalysis" of artificial intelligence is one of the development trends of the industry.2.5G accelerates the development of the industryWith the further maturity of artificial intelligence technology, enterprise business application ability will become an important assessment factor of capital in the future. 2019 is the first year of 5g commercial implementation. With the gradual advent of 5g commercial era, the connection efficiency of artificial intelligence technology will be further improved, and the fields of in-depth learning, data mining and automatic programming will be realized in more application fields. 5g will further promote the accelerated development of the industry.3. Large scale landing of AI chipsIn recent years, AI chips have gradually reached a usable state, and 2020 will be a key year for the large-scale implementation of AI chips. The end-side AI chip will be more low-cost, professional and integrated. At the same time, NPU (neural network processing unit) will become the basic module of the next generation end-side general CPU chip. In the future, more and more end-side CPU chips will carry out new chip planning with deep learning as the core. In addition to the chip, AI will redefine the computer architecture, and support AI training and predictive computing has become a new heterogeneous design architecture idea.4. Deep learning and large-scale applicationDeep learning is not only an important technology in the field of artificial intelligence, but also an effective technology proved by the industry. The open source deep learning platform with the deep learning framework as the core greatly reduces the development threshold of artificial intelligence technology and effectively improves the quality and efficiency of artificial intelligence applications. In 2020, all walks of life will apply deep learning technology on a large scale, implement innovation, and accelerate transformation and upgrading.5. The demand for talents has increased significantlyArtificial intelligence itself is a high integration of multi skills, not only the integration of traditional technology and data science, but also the integration of data acquisition, data storage, analysis, application, automatic control and other processes. With the deepening and advanced application of artificial intelligence, the collision of skills will continue to increase. It is no longer accidental for artificial intelligence talents to master a variety of skills and complex dimensions to solve problems. With the continuous development of Al industry, the demand for relevant talents is expanding. Al technical talents usher in golden development opportunities, especially in the field of high-tech services and manufacturing.
Two Attitudes Towards Hydrogen Fuel Cells at Home and Abroad
Two Attitudes Towards Hydrogen Fuel Cells at Home and Abroad
As users and enthusiasts of traditional cars, facing the rapid development of new energy vehicles, there will indeed be a period of pain. However, from a macro perspective, reducing the use of pure fuel vehicles is conducive to changing the energy use structure at the national level. However, global auto companies believe that the really clean new energy is hydrogen fuel cells. After all, the emissions are only water. However, looking at home and abroad, we will find that their attitudes towards the research and development of hydrogen fuel cell technology are different.In the early 18th century, British scientists invented the principle of fuel cell. In the 1950s, bacon, a professor at Cambridge University in England, successfully developed fuel cells with high-pressure hydrogen and applied them in the laboratory. In the 1970s, the United States successfully applied fuel cells to Gemini V spacecraft and Apollo spacecraft, becoming the first country to realize the application of hydrogen energy technology. However, from the late 20th century to the early 21st century, the development of hydrogen energy technology almost stagnated due to cost problems. It was not until the breakthrough of Japanese fuel cell technology in 2014, coupled with the gradual reduction of reserves of primary energy such as oil and coal, which led to energy shortage, that the vision of building a "hydrogen energy society" was regained, and hydrogen energy was paid more attention again.It is precisely because of the early contact with hydrogen fuel cell technology that foreign car companies started this technology much earlier than domestic ones. In fact, General Motors began to develop hydrogen fuel cell vehicles as early as 1966, Honda began in 1992, and Toyota followed Honda in four years. At the policy level, some countries maintain a positive attitude towards hydrogen fuel cell technology. For example, in 2014, Japan's Ministry of economy, industry and Trade issued the strategic roadmap for hydrogen energy and fuel cells and formulated a "three-step" development plan. Support policies mainly include R & D, demonstration and vehicle subsidies.In terms of R & D, Japan mainly invests in fuel cells, hydrogenation stations and hydrogen energy supply chain. Since 2017, the demonstration use of fuel cells has expanded from household to commercial and industrial use, and it is planned to reach 14 million sets next year. As for the subsidies most concerned by consumers, different models can enjoy 50% - 100% reduction, and about 50% subsidy for the construction of hydrogen refueling station. According to statistics, Japan's total subsidy to all domestic hydrogen refueling stations in 2014 was about US $60 million.The governments of Europe and the United States also support and encourage hydrogen fuel cell vehicles. The EU issued the renewable energy directive and other policy documents in 2016. The implementation cycle of the fuel cell and hydrogen energy implementation plan under promotion is 2014-2020, and the key support directions include transportation industry: road transportation, non road transportation, machinery, infrastructure, etc; Energy industry: hydrogen preparation, transportation, energy storage, power generation, cogeneration, etc. The United States can learn from the "national alternative fuel and charging network" plan released by the federal highway administration. 35 states in the United States will form a "hydrogen energy network" based on 55 hydrogen refueling stations, and 10 states such as California, Colorado, Florida, New York and Wisconsin will take the lead in starting construction.In China, the new energy vehicle policy has also gone through 10 years. The development ideas include not only the development direction and process of plug-in hybrid and pure electric vehicles, but also the part of hydrogen fuel cell technology, and the subsidy of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles is much higher than that of the former.In the notice on adjusting and improving the financial subsidy policy for the promotion and application of new energy vehicles jointly issued by the four ministries and commissions in 2018, it is mentioned that fuel cell passenger vehicles are subsidized according to the rated power of the battery, with the subsidy standard of 6000 yuan / kW and the upper limit of 200000 / vehicle. Passenger cars and trucks shall be given fixed subsidies, and the upper limit of subsidies shall be 300000-500000 / vehicle according to the size of vehicle model. On this basis, local governments will issue local subsidies according to the national subsidy of 1:1 or 0.5:1, that is, a hydrogen fuel bus can be subsidized up to 1 million yuan.At the same time, the strategic position of hydrogen energy and fuel cell industry can be seen in the national top-level plans such as the 13th five year plan for the development of strategic emerging industries, the action plan for energy technology revolution and innovation (2016-2030), the development plan for energy saving and new energy vehicle industry (2012-2020) and made in China 2025.The main reason why hydrogen fuel cell vehicles are "blooming everywhere" abroad but "silent" at home is that there is an obvious technical gap. As mentioned earlier, Japanese car companies began the research and development of hydrogen fuel cells in the early 1990s, while they did not start to invest in China until 2001, and the technical maturity of key parts is not as ideal.For example, proton exchange membrane system, metal plate electrode and graphite plate electrode, such as catalyst, proton exchange membrane, carbon paper, air compressor and hydrogen circulating pump, are still mainly imported, and there are not many domestic supporting enterprises.In addition to technical iterations and differences, another focus is to test the water of fuel cell technology in the field of commercial vehicles, especially in urban buses and van transporters. And the supporting hydrogen production technology and cost have never been balanced, and the problems such as the construction of hydrogen refueling station and midway transportation have not been solved.
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