35mm Film Vs. 24mp FF Sensor (F100 Vs )

I had the chance to used a Nikon F100 alongside a for a couple of days. During the period I had the camera, the weather was pretty bad (overcast) but I did manage to find a nice evening where the light was a bit better, and found a Christmas tree in my sitting room to photograph.ResolutionTo compare film with modern digital SLRs from the likes of Nikon, you really need to look at 645 Medium Format as a minimum to get the resolution and clarity when scanning. We all know megapixels means nothing, it is the size of the sensor which matters, or in this case the size of the grain.Clearly the fineness of film grain depends on the film stock chosen and how it is processed, but a standard ISO400 professional film in 35mm gets thrashed by an equivalent full frame digital sensor like the 24MP sensor found on the Nikon . Scanning is not ideal either, as the scanner although optimised to scan film, still doesnt work as well as a digital sensor in capturing information.

Sensor-tivityDigital sensors are also more sensitive than film, and therefore work better in low light conditions and in the shadows. An equivalent film stock needs a minimum amount of exposure to provide detail in the negative. One the negative is developed, you cant extract more detail from it than was captured in the original exposure. So if there is nothing there to begin with, you are stuffed.The following example in the woods proves that point perfectly. In this exposure I used a Nikon F100 and a Nikon with the Nikkor 28105mm, and the 1. Backlit Scene at SundownNotes: Both film and digital cameras were pointed into the woods. The sun was behind the tree but low enough in the sky to dominate the scene. The frame was exposed using the Nikon matrix metering mode to determine shutter speed. Theres an argument that a semi professional camera like the F100 would tend to underexpose such a shot, as it would be designed for journalists who would use a speedlight flash, but anyway, take the DNG out of the and lift the shadows in post-processing in Adobe Lightroom 5, the digital exposure reveals a great deal of information which was lurking in the shadows. I could have gone further in the photo above but didnt want to make it an unnatural looking picture. The does an amazing job in low light conditions, pulling so much detail out of the shadows.

Try the same trick with the film image and not surprisingly it doesnt work very well, although my poor technique wont have helped. With hindsight, the film really should have been over 2 overcompensated in such a backlit scenario, or I could have used a light meter; I have looked at the negative, and theres hardly anything on it. If theres nothing on the negative, the scanner wont pick it up, and no amount of post production tweaking will bring out any detail if it wasnt originally captured by the negative.

The old adage: Overexpose for shadows with film, and expose for the highlights with digital.2. Across the Sun at SundownNotes: The two photos are similar, though I prefer the colours in the film exposure, the Jpeg browns look a bit too rusty on the path. kills the film exposure on detail, however. Optimising both images in Lightroom produces two very nice images, which are as close to as I saw the scene. The film image, as always, requires much less tweaking in the colour department, but I would call this one a tie on looks and a win on detail.3. Indoors, High Contrast SceneNotes: The digital image is cleaner, no grain and although elements are blurred which arent in the film image, that is a function of where the camera auto-focussed. Again, I think I prefer the warmer, creamier colours of the film exposure to the digital picture which to me at least looks colderLifting the shadows and dropping the highlights on both and tweaking the contrast reveals two very detailed shots. The film image is not as detailed as the digital one, but I still prefer the colours.With an aftermarket effects package such as Totallyrad, Im sure you could make the digital image look nicer. I would say both cameras, and both media forms handle the scene and the lighting well.4. Outdoors FrontlitNotes: The sun was setting in this photo and there was a reasonable amount of contrast in the shot. The film image handles the highlight better, but that is probably because it was slightly underexposed compared to the digital shot. Its also reassuring to know that matrix metering has moved on in the last 15 years. Film image has the base fog which detracts from the photo somewhat, the digital image looks better out of the camera. With a little bit of tweaking, and lowering the blacks, both images are improved. The RAW file requires minimal tweaking, as it is already very good. The film image handles the highlights through the trees better than the digital image, but the wins on detail providing a wonderful depth of the image, the film image looking somewhat flat. With a decent lens (I admit the 28105mm is a reasonable carry round lens, but I wanted to give you an idea of how they perform with average equipment)5. Indoor with Mixed LightingThe digital camera has underexposed the digital shot, whereas the film camera has done a better, albeit grainier job. I like the film exposure, but wish the grain was smaller. It might look better as a black and white picture, or a cross processed slide film (see below). After the Lightroom tweak, both images look similar and very pleasing. I prefer the colours of the film shot, but would like less grain and less noise. Somewhere half way between the and F100 would be my ideal situation.

6. Indoor Low Light (the Christmas card shot)Notes:The film image to produce a pleasing black level loses some detail in the shadow. For this shot the Nikkor 50mm f1.8G was used, which as you can see produces beautiful bokeh on both cameras. The wins out on detail, whereas the F100 and Fuji Pro400H film doesnt have the definition to compete. Having said that it produced a good quality image.Conclusions:The really shines in dark conditions. To my eye at least, a film image still looks more pleasing in most of the images, but it does exhibit significant grain at 35mm format, and is not really suitable for enlargements. Also when the negative is scanned, a murky foggy layer is apparent on the negative which detracts from the image, in our clean digital world, it makes it looks old.The digital negative is much cleaner and more easily manipulated, the sensor is supremely detailed, and the dynamic range of the sensor is heading towards film territory. If you shoot in Raw, you can exceed the films dynamic range in post processing. The old black and white film photographers like Ansel Adams would expose for the shadows and develop for the highlights, the idea being that you can dodge and burn later, but if your negative holds no information, you can never add to nothing.As a film camera, the F100 will still produce nice photos, but it shines in sunny conditions, where the film gets exposed properly, and in this scenario, I still think it bats digital into the ground.But (and this is a big but), if you are thinking about using film in the UK in the winter, unless you are shooting a fast box speed black & white film, youre much better off with a digital camera, it provides cleaner files which are easier to manipulate.

Having been somewhat sceptical about how good the might be, I was actually bowled over by how good it was. I could pretty much pick the thing up and shoot straight away, having got used to shooting the F100. It needs skill to shoot it well, but it delivers a very high quality image and should still be considered a formidable weapon in photography terms, doing pretty much anything you want it to.

The cost of film is worth taking into account. It may look nice, but film is not cheap. To develop 36 exposures with high def scans (which I would question whether they are worth it, medium should be fine) and a set of prints cost me 20. Thats about 80p a shot including initial film cost. Of course, the film is what you are paying for, and if they produce new film stocks (which is not totally unreasonable to expect) your trusty old F100 will get a new lease of life. But expose and develop 50 rolls of film and youve spent yourself a thousand pounds. As I said, not cheap.Im looking forward to the summer when the light works a bit better so I can get out and shoot both again to see what they look like in the bright sunshine. Watch this space!.

·RELATED QUESTION

Creating large aspheric lens profile for CNC cutting out of Acrylic plastic for huge Camera Obscura

My first reaction is - don't do it. The image quality of a single element lens is not very good - PMMA has significant chromatic aberration. The right thing to do would be to spend some money on a "real" lens. Here is the refractive index as a function of wavelength (from a 1% difference in refractive index - so blue light (shorter wavelength) will be refracted more. At a distance of 1 m, for an image that is 40 cm diameter, a white point will be smeared out over 6 mm (with blue on the outside and red on the inside).But assuming this is a "hobby" project and you just want to see what you can do, then you have two choices to make:So - let's assume you are going with plano-convex, spherical. Now we can do the math: we have a refractive index of (say) 1.5, and we want a focal length of f with a lens aperture r. With a source at infinity, you can compute the angle that you need as a function of r with a simple diagram (note - this looks a lot like the beginnings of a Fresnel lens...)We know from Snell's Law that$$fracn_1n_2 fracsin(theta_2)sin(theta_1)$$and that$$alpha theta_2 - theta_1$$We can solve the above and find that the lens surface needs to a a paraboloid - the revolution of a parabola. Now using small angle approximations, where $alpha tan(alpha) sin(alpha)$, and putting $n_21$ (air), we get$$beginalign

fracrf & theta_2 - theta_1

& (n_1 - 1) theta_1

theta_1 fracrf(n_1-1)

endalign$$This tells us that the angle of the lens is proportional to the distance off-axis: the equation of a parabola. You can use this equation to compute the shape for a given focal length and refractive index. For example, if you want a 2000 mm focal length, you would get$$theta fracr2000 (1.5 - 1) 0.001 fracrmm$$Translating this to thickness x of the lens:$$fracdxdr - 0.001 r

x const - 0.0005 (r/mm)^2$$If we say the lens is zero thickness at 150 mm, then it needs to be 11.25 mm thick in the middle for a 2 m focal length, with a parabolic profile.That should be enough to get you going... but expect to be making a few iterations before you are happy with the result. Polishing a lens to even a semblance of optical accuracy is hard work - and as I mentioned, chromatic aberration will be pretty severe. Fun project though.

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How Does Traditional Market Research Integrate Blockchain
Insights network launched the install blockchain, which is one of the most unique blockchain technology use cases seen in the world. In this article, we will discuss how our blockchain Market Research Network works from a technical perspective, and how this technology can improve data quality, reduce costs, reduce fraud, and empower data creators.Next, we will focus on some of the most common problems in the traditional market research industry. Since the birth of the Internet, there has been no innovative standard practice in the traditional market research industry.Problem: low quality users. Unconfirmed false data. The traditional panel only allows users to register and select demographic information. We call it personal data value (age, gender, income level, number of children, pet owner, etc.). IP address detection is the basis for deciding whether to allow consumers to participate in the survey. In some cases, a method called "river sampling" is used to conduct real-time surveys of respondents. In this method, anyone who visits the survey link will begin to be screened for demographic questions and enter the relevant surveys (if available). This will lead to a poor user experience, which we will discuss in another article on this blog.Solution: verify the blockchain account. The submitted value is assigned to the install blockchain account as a hash value after verification. The insights network blockchain authentication account is assigned a hash value, allowing the account to participate in the smart contract. The identity is verified by a third-party authentication partner, and the value of the profile is submitted as an unexplained hash value, so it is impossible to know what value is assigned to each user. We use our patent application zero knowledge proof authentication scheme as a filter to ensure that authentication partners cannot track the documents they are validating. The technology we are applying for patent will be published and disclosed in detail before the end of 2019. Next, you will see the account verification record that occurs in real time and recorded on the blockchain. In this example, the account "fbtiezh3sty4" has received the authentication credentials assigned to its account and submitted to the install blockchain as "commit".Install blockchain record of the validated profile value submitted to the blockchain accountProblem: poor user experience. When conducting the survey on the traditional market research platform, a method called "river sampling" is adopted to conduct real-time survey on the respondents. In this method, anyone who visits the link will begin to be screened for demographic questions and guided to the relevant survey (if any). This leads to a bad user experience, and users constantly jump out of the survey in the process of accepting the survey. This is a waste of investigators' time and creates great frustration among the team members, resulting in a low retention rate of the team. For example, a requester can set a condition that only men aged 30-40 who drive a white car, own a dog and have mortgage debt are eligible to participate in the survey. Instead of predetermining these values before service users, they ask them when investigators conduct surveys. Some surveys may take 45 minutes to complete. Imagine that you spent 25 minutes completing a survey, but when they asked you if you had a pet and you said no, you were rejected. What would you think. This happened to most respondents.Solution: determine the "match" in advance before providing users with investigation opportunities. Through the smart contract on the install blockchain, you can find the value of the blockchain account submitted to each user and the local storage of the encryption profile value on the user's device. Every time a survey opportunity is created and funded, it enters the insights network data exchange smart contract. The contract then polls each device connected to the network for a device that matches the requested survey. The same selection criteria as traditional market research products can be set by the requester, but it does not allow anyone on the local IP address to access the survey - just to pop up unqualified participants afterwards - the smart contract searches for active devices on the network and only shows the survey opportunities to providers who meet the exact criteria specified by the requester. We use the so-called disconnection circuit to calculate the encryption profile value of each user to determine the "match". During the matching process, encrypted data polled for eligible demographic data will never be decrypted - giving users complete control over the visibility of their data. Here is how to record a match on the blockchain:Complete the "matched" install blockchain recordOnce a match is determined, the provider can see an investigation opportunity. Users can view the compensation provided for completing the survey, the personal data requested and the submitted data, and agree when exchanging personal data and responding to the survey. The submitted answer cannot be represented by a hash value.Install blockchain record for data exchangeQuestion: can you really believe these data? Most panel companies that complete the brand survey sample provide data sets to brands in an opaque situation. Previously, the industry has been plagued by the sharing of personally identifiable information (also known as "PII"). However, with the introduction of the general data protection regulation (gdpr) by the European Union (EU), this system has undergone major adjustments. It is illegal to collect consumers' personal identity information and sell it to a third party without consumers' consent. If the PII of consumers cannot be shared, it is more difficult to provide accurate information about the surveyed users. Nevertheless, most online panel companies have completely unauthenticated user databases, and trust in people is the only determinant of data quality.Solution: the blockchain can verify the transaction ID. When running an example on the insights network, the blockchain transaction ID is associated with each respondent. This creates audit trails that are not available in the current market research industry. There is now a clear record of team members' submissions and the relevant summary values of each team member. In addition to transparency, these transaction IDS can also be used as your consent records, that is, the consumers you investigate and exchange data agree to the data exchange you pay for them. Some gdpr laws require applicants to keep records of subjects' consent. Using the insights network, this feature is built-in to the end-to-end experience.The following is a screenshot of the data export of a survey recently launched by insight networ. As the requester, this is the data you paid and the data you received. As an additional feature, insights network uses one-time pad encryption for all data you purchase. This means that insights network cannot pry into the data set you pay as a requester. After you export the data, this is the only time you can export the data.Results of a survey sponsored by insights network on the popular cryptocurrency chainlinkProblem: slow invoicing and long revenue turnover time. At present, the invoicing time of the market research industry needs at least 60-90 days, and a brand can pay the expenses of researchers. This means that team members also have to wait for their bonus. The core reason is the lack of high-quality data and deceptive survey responses that need to be evaluated and filtered from the final data set. This may take several weeks for the brand to comb through the data and determine which data sets are available and which are false. This is a particularly painful experience for group companies because they are waiting for feedback from the brand. Basically, the brand tells them how much they will get from the data set provided by group members.Solution: early data verification and smart contract payment data exchange. As mentioned in this article, the verification of profile values, matching on blockchain and smart contract governance create a more efficient and high-quality end-to-end experience. The last thing to record is the payment scheme. Because surveys can be provided to pre-determined, pre validated audiences, payments occur immediately and are subject to smart contracts. Install cryptocurrency provides funds for the smart contract according to the budget determined by the requester, and pays the provider with blockchain transaction immediately after the provider submits and agrees to the data exchange. The following is the transaction ID of the data exchange smart contract paid to the provider who completed and agreed to exchange in the network.Blockchain transaction ID of payment data exchangeCryptocurrency payments on the blockchain and install blockchain are borderless and can be sent to anyone around the world within 1 second. It also opens up access to emerging markets that were previously inaccessible due to the collapse of their banking systems.Development prospectAt present, we are running the survey sample on the install blockchain network as the first use case of insights network. This technology has unlimited scalability, can safely verify data, and communicate privately on the network in a transparent record, such as sending bitcoin payment to friends. Some future use cases we are dealing with include releasing previously unavailable data exchange / sharing opportunities, such as nuclear power plant data exchange, PII involving Enterprise Market Research (Q4) using secret state data prediction, and simpler use cases, such as receipt data exchange and micro customer experience survey. The most beautiful aspect of blockchain technology is the global cooperation opportunities it provides.Source: blocknet
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